The Kagera Health and Development Survey (KHDS) is a study into the long-run wealth dynamics of households and individuals within North West Tanzania. This study entails the resurvey of a panel of households, originally interviewed for 4 rounds from 1991 to 1994. Resurveys were then organised in 2004 and 2010. A multi-topic household questionnaire is administered to all split-off households originating from the baseline households, including those that have moved out of the baseline location.

This constitutes one of the longest-running (if not the longest) African panel data set of this nature and offers an unprecedented set of research opportunities for examining long-run (nearly 20 years) and intergenerational (as the children of the original respondents have now formed their own households) trends in and mechanisms of poverty persistence and economic growth in rural households. Interviewing people who moved out of their baseline location is important for understanding how migration and economic development interlink. Finally, of note to survey innovation, the 2010 round of the survey was conducted using electronic survey questionnaires administered on handheld computers. Caeyers et al. (2010) do a detailed, formal comparison of electronic versus paper-based data collection methods, through a randomized survey experiment.

KHDS has maintained a highly successful tracking rate. The table below shows that in 2010 88% of the original 6353 respondents had either been located and interviewed, or, if deceased, sufficient information regarding the circumstances of their death collected.

Table: Status of the 6353 original respondents

interviewed 4430 (70%) 4336 (68%)
deceased 961 (15%) 1275 (20%)
untraced 962 (15%) 742 (12%)
TOTAL 6353 (100%) 6353 (100%)

The KHDS 2010 was primarily funded by the Rockwool Foundation and the World Bank, with additional funds provided by the Hewlett Foundation through the Agence Inter-établissements de Recherche pour le Développement (AIRD). The 2004 round was funded by the Knowledge for Change Partnership Trust Fund at the World Bank and DANIDA.The baseline 1991-1994 KHDS was funded by the World Bank Research Committee.

The full 19-year panel data set (1991-2010), its questionnaires and a basic information document for data users are now publicly available.


Go to the 1991-94 data download site

Go to the 2004 data download site

Go to the 2010 data download site


More information on the surveys can be found in their Basic Information Documents:

1991-94 Basic Information Document

2004 Basic Information Document

2010 Basic Information Document


This document compares the KHDS sample to the HBS (see Basic Information Document for a comparison with CWIQ):

KHDS-HBS comparison


Researchers using the data may benefit from the following additional constructed data sets:

KHDS 2010 distance to borders, border crossings, refugee camps and original location and linked HHs (from Jose Funes and Jean-Francois Maystadt)


KHDS 2010 matrix of distances between all interviewed HHs in 2010 - note this is an 80MB file (from Jose Funes and Jean-Francois Maystadt)


Price, Consumption and Assets Aggregates (1991-2004) - updated in 2004 (do not use with 2010 round)


Price and Consumption Aggregates (1991-2010) - updated in 2010 (for use with 2010 round)


Rainfall data 1980-2004


GPS data 2004: distance to schools, community centers, baseline HH, other HHs in village and distance between villages


GPS data 2004: distance of KHDS communities to Rwanda border (from Javier Baez)


GPS data 2004: distance of KHDS communities to Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda borders (from Monica Fisher)


GPS data 2004: distance of KHDS communities to refugee camps (from Jean-Francois Maystadt)


GPS data 2004: elevation data for all markets, schools, community centers and households in KHDS


NASA weather data (from Kalle Hirvonen)

this is daily data spanning 1981-2010 linked to the baseline villages on these variables:

•  Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)

•  Air Temperature At 2 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (degrees C)

•  Minimum Air Temperature At 2 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (degrees C)

•  Maximum Air Temperature At 2 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (degrees C)

•  Humidity Ratio At 2 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)

•  Relative Humidity (%)

•  Dew/Frost Point Temperature (degrees C)

•  Earth Skin Temperature (degrees C)

•  Wind Speed At 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m/s)

•  Precipitation (mm/day)


If the data you are looking for is not in this list, then try here: